Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Waste water Treatment of BGP containing TAR

Tar Removal through Physical Processes Physical processes will continue to play a very important role for the successful commercial implementation of gasification. They constitute the basic arm for removing most of the raw gasifier contaminants, including “tar.” “Tar” is removed mainly through wet or wet-dry scrubbing. Coalescers, demisters, and cold filtration are also necessary supplements. These well-known commercial methods are easily designed and applied, depending on the specific needs of any gasification process. The main problem arising from “tar” scrubbing is that condensed “tar” components are merely transferred into another phase (water or solids such as scrubbing lime), which then has to be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The problems associated with the management of these wastewater or solid residues are summarized as follows: • “Tar” and “tar”-contaminated solid-waste streams are considered as a special waste; consequently, their disposal is usually cumbersome and costly. • “Tar”-bearing wastewater is usually a bi-phasic mixture requiring various steps of treatment before final disposal. Water insoluble “tar” skimming • Most water-soluble “tar” components are refractory to the usual biological wastewater treatments. The applied methods for “tar” and “tar”-containing waste streams include solid waste stabilization and landfilling, organic phase skimming off the bi-phasic wastewater-free surface, wastewater incineration, wet oxidation, adsorption on activated carbon, and final biological treatment. Wastewater contaminants include dissolved organics, inorganic acids, NH , and metals. 3 Typical values of COD, BOD, and phenols for wastewater from fixed-bed gasifiers are given in Hasler et al. (1997). The new BIOSYN design proposes a continuous skimming-off of insoluble “tar” from the surface of the wastewater. tar-containing wastewater was treated using lime and alum for the removal of in-organics, followed by adsorption on powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the removal of organics. At optimum concentrations, both lime and alum individually proved to be capable of removing color, total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), but in both cases, pH adjustment had to be carried out after treatment. The combination of lime and alum at the dose ratio of 0.8:0.8 g/L was found to be optimum for the removal of inorganics. The removal efficiency achieved at optimum concentrations were 78.6, 62.0, 62.5 and 52.8% for color, alkalinity, TSS and TDS, respectively. Coagulation-precipitation followed by adsorption on PAC resulted in 92.3% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 100% phenol removal at equilibrium. This technology may prove to be one of the fastest and most techno-economically feasible methods for the treatment of tar-containing wastewater generated from BGPs. biomass gasification plant.
The specific technical objectives of this study are: 1. Identify the optimum individual doses of lime and alum (coagulant) required to achieve the best treatment efficiency. 2. Identify the optimum and minimum dose of the coagulant-combination (lime and alum) required to achieve good treatment efficiency without having to conduct final pH adjustment. 3. Determine the efficiency of the coagulationflocculation process at optimum coagulant dosage followed by adsorption on powdered activated carbon (PAC). The iodine value of PAC was 1050 mg/g. The optimum dose of lime was found to be 0.8 g/L, with maximum removal efficiency for color, TSS and TDS, and minimum amount of sludge generation. The optimum dose of alum was observed to be 0.8 g/L with maximum TSS, TDS and minimum amount of sludge generation. However, the optimum dose of alum for maximum color removal was found to be 1.0 g/L. Lime was found to remove ammonia more efficiently than alum. In the lime-alum combination, lime:alum dose of 0.8:0.8 g/L was found to demonstrate maximum removal of TSS, TDS, alkalinity, and minimum amount of sludge generation. However, the lime:alum dose of 0.9:1.0 g/L provided maximum removal of color and ammonia. The coagulation-flocculation process was found to be more efficient for the removal of color, TDS, TSS and alkalinity than for the removal of COD and phenol.
CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFLUENT FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION PLANT Parameter Unit Values pH -- 7.49 (±0.015) Color Co-Pt unit 1076.5 (±38.5) TDS mg/L 1875 (±75) TSS mg/L 82.5 (±2.5) Alkalinity (as CaCO3) mg/L 537.5 (±12.5) Ammonical Nitrogen mg/L 242.55 (±12.45) Nitrate nitrogen mg/L 0.62 (± 0.02) Phosphate (as PO4 3-) mg/L 0.12 (±0.03) CODtotal mg/L 3599.5 (±57.5) CODsoluble mg/L 3499.5 (±57.5) Phenol mg/L 465 (±10) Oil and Grease mg/L 36 (± 4.0) Note: Values in parenthesis are standard deviation

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

what is a wastewater treatability study and how does it work?

 what is a wastewater treatability study and how does it work?

A wastewater treatability study is a study or a test that tells us if the wastewater can be treated and how it needs to be treated. If the study is done correctly, it will clearly identify the problem you’re seeing in your wastewater stream, helping ensure the proper treatment solutions are considered.
Let’s just say, for example, that a plant processes metals—maybe a metal plating facility like a chrome plater or zinc plater—and all of the sudden, they realize residual metals are present in their wastewater, which are prohibited to discharge in just about any receiving watershed or municipality.
The company performing the study would start by taking a sample of their wastewater, analyzing it (called a characterization study) so they can identify what they think is the problem through analytical means.
Once the treatability study is complete and the problem is identified, sometimes a plant will opt to test different solutions by initially using some conventional technologies to remove the contaminants from the solution.
Once they establish that they can removed the contaminants successfully, they will then scale up the scope of the technology to sufficiently handle the full scale of the process. 

keep in mind that there is usually more than one treatment available for your problem. A reputable company will perform the treatability study and recommend different solution for you.

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Re Uses of Egg shell

Re Uses of Egg shell 

FACTS about egg shells:
  • Bio waste chicken eggshells are made of calcium carbonate, which is also the main ingredient in some antacid. Each medium sized egg shell has about 750-800 mgs of calcium.
  • The shell makes up 9-12 percent of an egg’s total weight (7 gm)
  • Waste eggshells generated by processing industries have the potential to be used as follows
  • It can be easily powdered in a coffee grinder machine and re used.
Garden Fertilizer
Eggshells are rich in calcium and other minerals that help your garden thrive. Crush eggshells into tiny pieces and sprinkle into each hole before planting.
If you dunk egg shells in water and let them soak for a day or two, the calcium in the shells dissolves into the water. The water is then infused with calcium and it is great for watering plants, because the calcium helps these plants to grow and contributes to synthesizing the green pigment, which is necessary for plant photosynthesis.
Use them in your organic waste composter
 One thing I have learned CAN go in your composter is powdered egg shell, and is a rich source of calcium and other essential nutrients that plants need.
Use them in your vermicomposting!
If you’re vermicomposting you can feed your little worm workers by reusing your eggshells as worm food! You’ll want to pulverize your eggshells to make the easier for the worms to eat. 
Nourishing Face Mask
Pulverize dried egg shells with a mortar and pestle, then whisk the powder in with an egg white and use for a healthful, skin-tightening facial. Allow the face mask to dry before rinsing it off.
Powerful dish Cleaner
Ground eggshells make a wonderful (and nontoxic!) abrasive for those tough-to-clean pots and pans. Mix them with a little soapy water for a powerful clean.
Make Your Own Powdered Calcium Supplement
Skip the pills and simply bake your shells at 350 degrees for 8 minutes. Let them cool and grind them to a fine powder. Add your supplement (a teaspoon or less) to your favorite smoothie or juice once a day. You can feed the chicken also mixing with its feed.

Remember: if using shells in something you will consume, only use boiled shells, otherwise you run the risk of a salmonella infection.

Tuesday, May 16, 2017

Re-use of harvested water hyacinth as organic fertilizer through composting

Re-use of harvested water hyacinth as organic fertilizer through composting 

Water Hyacinths: even though this is seen as a harmful plant or sea weed, it has it usefulness when used.
A) Water purifier: Water hyacinths can be used to detoxify water bodies in enclosed areas.
b) Organic manure: It is used in potato cultivation
c)Bio gas plant: More specifically I recall chopping large quantity of water hyacinth for biogas production. It is mixed with the droppings and dung in biogas production.
d) Handicraft: Fiber can be treated and made to rope. Rope artisans can make different items from the rope..

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive plant that is native of the Amazon basin and whose capacity for growth and propagation causes major conservation problems with considerable socioeconomic repercussions. The greatest damage due to its fast expansion has been in the middle reaches of the River Guadiana in the SW Iberian Peninsula, where was detected in the Autumn of 2004. Due to its rapid expansion, mechanical extraction was carried out by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (CHG) of Spain's Ministry of the Environment since the affected zone is an important area of irrigation farming and hydraulic works and this alien plant weed provoked acute social alarm (Ruiz et al., 2008). In this work we used composting and vermicomposting techniques as an environmental alternative to assess the possibilities of biotransformation of the water hyacinth biomass removed mechanically from the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Four compost piles 1.5 x 10 m size, mechanically tumbled and with no forced ventilation (turning windrows system), were constructed outdoor. Each compost pile was considered as a different treatment: CC1: fresh water hyacinth / wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC2: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC3: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (2:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2) to favor the composting process; CC4: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2). The vermicomposting process was performed on mesh coated wooden boxes (0.34 m3) covered with a shadow mesh with the aim of harmonizing the environmental conditions. The quantities of water hyacinth biomass used were identical in volume (120 l) but with different state or composition: fresh and chopped biomass (VCF); dry and chopped biomass (VCS); fresh and pre-composted biomass with sheep manure rich in wheat straw (VCP). Identical worm density, irrigation type (microaspersion), irrigation period and vermicomposting process duration (four months) were adopted. Phytotoxicity tests were performed on Lactuca sativa cv. "cuatro estaciones" with the aim of finding the appropriate concentrations to be incorporated to the soil. The composting process required water hyacinth to be crushed, because only chopping made the process very slow. The greatest effectiveness was observed with the vermicomposting trials. In the phytotoxicity tests, the vermicompost extracts did not cause any toxicity at any of the concentrations studied; however, compost extracts obtained in CC1 and CC3 caused problems in root development. Key words: composting, vermicomposting, water hyacinth. References Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1: 42-53.

Tuesday, May 09, 2017

how to get pregnant conceive with a baby boy naturally DR. SHETTLES’ METHOD

how to get pregnant  conceive with a baby boy naturally

Dr. Shettles’ method has probably been the world’s most widely used gender selection method since the publication of his bestseller, How to Choose the Sex of Your Baby, in the 1960s (you can still purchase the book from or

One important fact to remember is that a woman has two X chromosomes and the man has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome so when it comes to picking which gender she wants it will not be up to her but up to the man since he has a boy and a girl chromosome. Although the Y chromosome baby boy sperm is faster than the X chromosome girl sperm, the boy sperm is much more delicate. You must time your sexual intercourse to happen on the day you ovulate and the environment is not acidic. For a few days before the woman ovulates there should not be any sexual intercourse so the man will have many active Y chromosome boy sperm.
There are hundreds of tips on conceiving a boy telling you what you should eat, sexual positions you should use, what time of the day, etc that will help you conceive a boy.  Just remember that what works for one person may not work with you.  One thing that everyone should know before putting these tips to use is when they ovulate.  This means when an egg is released and is ready to be fertilized.  This is very important to know especially when you are trying to conceive a boy.  The Y chromosome boy sperm is delicate and you need to make sure that you and your partner are having sexual intercourse on that day if at all possible.  There is a window which is no later than twelve hours after you ovulate or no earlier than twenty-four hours before you ovulate.
When you are trying to figure out your ovulation date you should keep a chart for at least three months so you will have an idea of when you will ovulate.
·         If you make use of ovulation calculator together with monitoring the basal body temperature, you will get correct results.
·         if you want to conceive a boy naturally, you should avoid sex 3-5 days before the ovulation and should go for sex not more than 12-24 hours before you ovulate. In this case, egg will be there in uterus waiting for sperms to meet with one. Sperms are running through the way. As you now, male sperms are fast than female sperms, they will reach the egg first to meet it and to start a pregnancy. 

Male sperm live shorter than female sperm. So if they have to travel long distance than only female sperm will reach the egg.
So, in order to increase your chances to conceive a boy, you want to shorten the distance the sperm have to travel. You can do that with deep penetration intercourse positions. The good ol’ missionary position is fine if the woman raises her pelvis by bringing her knees up to her chest or resting her legs on the man’s shoulders. Placing a pillow under the woman’s bottom will make that easier.sperm is released as closely to the cervix as possible, which favors the male sperm cells. After he released his sperm, stay on your back with raised hips for at least 30 minutes so that the sperm stays there for 30 minutes instead of slipping out of your vagina.
Have an orgasm: When you have an orgasm, the cervical mucus inside your vagina becomes more alkaline and creates a better environment for male sperm. Ideally, the woman should climax before the male partner.
Ask Your Partner To Have Coffee
Even though this fact has not been tested scientifically, many women have vouched for the fact that it helps to conceive a boy. When the male partner has coffee before the intercourse. It is possible that caffeine helps the sperms in some way, but either way you are not going to lose anything. The ideal choice to brew the coffee would be using a good coffee maker, which keeps all the natural oils intact.
Tips on conceiving a boy eating certain foods
·         Eat more red meat.  The redder it is the better chance you have of conceiving a boy because it is rich in nutrients that will help with fertility.  Red meat will also help increase sperm production.  It is also rich in proteins which will help boost your chances of conceiving a baby boy.  Although it can help enhance your chances of conceiving a boy you need to eat it in moderation.  If you eat a large amount of red meat it could tip the scales toward having a girl instead by enhancing the acidity of her vaginal environment and reproductive tract.  When eating red meat, the salty red meat is better because it will increase your odds of having a boy.  You should add red meat to the menu around your ovulation date because it increases your chance of conceiving a baby boy.  You should also increase your intake of foods that are rich in protein.
·         You can take some herbal medicines also. You may contact Qari Hayat Khan, NOIDA,UP on his mobile +919717068694