COPY RIGHTS : TO AVOID COPYRIGHT VIOLATIONS, ALL POSTS ARE SHOWN ALONG WITH SOURCES FROM WHERE ITS TAKEN. PLEASE CONTACT ME IN MY EMAIL SALEEMASRAF@GMAIL.COM , IF YOU ARE THE AUTHOR AND YOUR NAME IS NOT DISPLAYED IN THE ARTICLE.THE UNINTENTIONAL LAPSE ON MY PART WILL BE IMMEDIATELY CORRECTED.

I HAVE SHARED ALL MY PRACTICAL WATER TREATMENT EXPERIENCES WITH SOLVED EXAMPLE HERE SO THAT ANYBODY CAN USE IT.

SEARCH THIS BLOG BELOW FOR ENVO ,COMPACT STP,ETP,STP,FMR,MBBR,SAFF,IRON,ARSENIC,FLUORIDE,FILTER,RO,UASB,BIO GAS,AERATION TANK,SETTLING TANK,DOSING,AMC.

SEARCH THIS BLOG

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Re: WINDROW COMPOSTING



On Tue, Aug 28, 2007 at 3:33 PM, saleem asraf syed imdaadullah <saleemasraf@gmail.com> wrote:
 

The Sanitary landfill sites are fast disappearing. Dumping Waste into Landfill sites in not the solution of Municipal Solid Waste Management. Composting provides a way out not only to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be disposed off but also converts garbage into a product that is useful for gardening, landscaping or house plants.

What can be Composted

: Good things you can compost are vegetable peelings, fruit waste, tea bags , plant prunings, grass cuttings etc.

What cant be used

: Certain things should never be placed in your bin. Keep away COOKED vegetables, Meat, Dairy Products, Diseased Plants,. Ideally wet garbage should not be put into the bin.

THE FIRST STEP: Segregate the garbage before handing it to the sweepers who come to your homes. DRY & WET waste need to be separated at the household level. Two storage bin of different color should be provided at homes for the purpose.

 

 

THE SECOND STEP: The sweeper store the kitchen waste like food leftovers, vegetables, meat refuse, egg shells at the compost making site. They take the dry waste away.

Third Step: COMPOST MAKING: Adding falling leaves from the road side completes the preparation for making compost. The wet garbage is moved and a new layer of waste is spread over it daily.. Water should be sprinkled daily on it and a fresh stock of compost is ready every three weeks.

Fourth Step: Marketing and selling of compost. This will not creat a problem if it is sold as a brand name or as organic manure. All the tea gardens will be happy to take it. Also all health conscious people will stop using chemical fertilizers in their kitchen garden.

 

THE 22 MT COMPOSTING PROJECT

ANNEXURE-I Key Personnel details

S No

Category of personnel

Name

Qualification

Present designation

Experience in relevant field

Remarks

1

Team Leader (Solid waste Engineer with 10 Years experience)

2

Municipal Engineering Specialist

3

Medical and Health Specialist

4

Finance Specialist

5

Management specialist


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANNEXURE-II NORMS FOR GENERATION OF GARBAGE


Category of garbage

Quantity generated

Domestic household

(1) Population range upto 1 lakh

(2) Population range 1 to 5 lakh

(3) Population range 5 to 10 lakh

(4) Population range 10 to 20 lakh


0.21 Kg per person per day

0.21 Kg per person per day

0.25 Kg per person per day

0.27 Kg per person per day

Street sweepings and drain silt

0.10 Kg per person per day

Slaughter House:

(1) Small slaughter house

(2) Medium slaughter house

(3) Large slaughter house


0.5 to 1.0 ton per day

2 to 6 ton per day

6 to 7 ton per day

Domestic waste from Hospitals / Clinics etc.

1.1 Kg per bed per day

 

ANNEXURE-III

What constitutes Biodegradable Waste – Components

    1. Kitchen / canteen waste – unused vegetable cuttings, fruit peel-off, tea / coffee powder, coconut fiber, egg shells, non-vegetable waste, stale / leftover / rotten food etc.
    2. Flowers / garlands
    3. Hair / cut nails
    4. Excreta of the pet animals, cow dung etc.
    5. Horticulture waste like dried leaves, grass, cut trees, uprooted wheat.

Segregation at Source:

  • Encouraging residents / producers to segregate
  • Separation of Bio-degradable and non-biodegradable at source.
  • Involve Rag pickers in segregation at source.
  • Involve Self-help Groups in segregation, if required.
  • Introduction of TWO BIN system.

WINDROW COMPOSTING

:

In areas/regions were higher ambient temperatures are available,composting in open windrows is to be preferred. In this method, refuse is delivered on a paved/unpaved open space but levelled and well drained land in

about 20 windrows with each windrow 3m long x 2m wide x 1.5m high, with a total volume not exceeding 9.0 cu.m.Each windrow would be turned on 6th& 11thdays outside to the centre to destroy insects larvae and to provide aeration. On 16thday, windrow would be broken down and passed through manually operated rotary screens of about 25mm square mesh to remove the oversize contrary material. The screened compost is stored for about 30 days in heaps about 2m wide x 1.5m high and up to 20m long to ensure stabilization before sale.

 

However, the composting mass should have a certain minimum moisture content in it for the organisms to survive. The optimum moisture content is known to be between 50 to 60 % . Higher moisture content may be required while composting straw and strong fibrous material which soften the fibre and fills the large pore spaces.

The C/N ratio considers the available carbon as well as the available nitrogenwhile the available carbon and nitrogen in the MSW may vary from sample to sample. Whenever the C/N ratio is less than the optimum, carbon source such as straw, sawdust, paper are added while if the ratio is too high, the sewage sludge, slaughter house waste, blood etc. are added as a source of nitrogen.

During the decomposition, the oxygen gets depleted and has to be continuously replenished. This can be achieved either by turning of windrows . During the turning, it is necessary to bring inner mass to the outer surface and to transfer the outer waste to the inner portion. In Indian conditions the decomposition is commonly carried out in open windrows. Studies at NEERI have shown that the optimum turning interval which will reduce the cost and simultaneously maintain aerobic conditions is 5 days.

The windrows should be located over impervious surface so that the surface water from the windrows which can go to Effluent Treatment Plant.

THE FINAL COMPOST CHARACTERISTICS

:

The compost prepared from MSW should be black brown or at least black in colour. It should be crumbly in nature with an earthy odour. The pH should be neutral though slightly acidic or alkaline pH within the range of 6.5 to 7.5 can be tolerated.The compost should neither be completely dry nor it be lumpy and water should not come out of the mass when squeezed.

The Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) contents should be more than one percent each. The Nitrogen should be in the form of Nitrates for proper utilisation by the plants. The C/N ratio should be between 15 to 20.In order to ensure safe application of compost,

As the compost plantoperates at a constant rate, a balancing storage has to be provided to absorb the fluctuations in the waste input to the plant. This is provided in a storage hopper of 8 to 24 hours storage capacity, the exact value depending upon the schedule of incoming trucks, the number of shifts and the number of days the plant and solid waste collection system works.

. These windrows are turned every 5 days to ensure aerobic decomposition. Various types of equipment such as front end loaders/windrows reshifters are used for turning of windrows.At the end of the 3 to 4 weeks period, the material is known as green or fresh compost wherein the cellulose has not been fully stabilised. It is hence stored in large sized windrows for 1-2 months either at the plant or the farms. At the end of the storage period, it is known as ripe compost.

 

POINTS TO BE NOTED

:

:-• Large storage hoppers are not needed.

• Covering of windrow area is not required as the plants are normally shut down during monsoon for annual repairs.

• Artificial aeration under Indian conditions is not required

• It is preferable to first stabilise the raw material and then subject it to picking and size reduction. This will require same windrow area, and improve efficiency of picking and size reduction

• Composting should not be considered as a commercial venture but should be treated as a processing method to reduce the MSW content to be dumped at landfill sites..

• On such days when the waste cannot be accepted at the compost plant or if shutdown occurs for extended period due to rains/cold climate/major breakdown or annual maintenance, the waste should be diverted to a properly designed and operated MSW landfill.

•. The height of stockpiled waste should not exceed 3 metres and the storage area must have provision for odour control, litter control, fire control and birds control.

The areas where compost is to be supplied should be near the site and should be easily accessible. A site for disposal of non compostables should be available near the compost plant site.Trees planted along the periphery of the site will serve partly as a barrier against the noise and odour from the plant and also help in litter control byreducing the wind speed . The trees will also protect the plant from dust and pollutants due to the highway.

GO FOR A PILOT PLANT STUDY FIRST

:

The design and construction of a full scale compost plant needs at least 1.5 to 2 years. Before the plant becomes operational, pilot scale studies be carried out using a small quantity of the raw waste that will be used in the final plant. The raw waste as well as finished compost should also be analysed for heavy metal content. The output of the plant should be widely advertised to the consumers. The pilot studies will help determine the proportion of non-compostables that need disposal, the compost output per tonne of input and its nutrient contents.

 

NORTH EAST INDIA

:

In the North East Indian states, to protect the windrows from heavy rainfall, the windrow area will have to be covered.

EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT

:

• All uncovered windrow areas should be provided with an impermeable base.Such a base may be made of concrete or of compacted clay, 50 centimetres thick, having permeability less than 10 centimetres/second. The base must be provided with 1 to 2 percent slope and must be encircled by lined drains for collection of leachate/surface water runoff. All lined drains should beconnected to a lined settling pond, where tests for quality of waste-water are to be performed on a weekly basis. A treatment unit will be provided to ensure that the waste-water is discharged to open drains only after it meets the regulatory standards.




--
http://www.saleemindia.blogspot.com

Re: WINDROW COMPOSTING



On Tue, Aug 28, 2007 at 3:33 PM, saleem asraf syed imdaadullah <saleemasraf@gmail.com> wrote:
 

The Sanitary landfill sites are fast disappearing. Dumping Waste into Landfill sites in not the solution of Municipal Solid Waste Management. Composting provides a way out not only to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be disposed off but also converts garbage into a product that is useful for gardening, landscaping or house plants.

What can be Composted

: Good things you can compost are vegetable peelings, fruit waste, tea bags , plant prunings, grass cuttings etc.

What cant be used

: Certain things should never be placed in your bin. Keep away COOKED vegetables, Meat, Dairy Products, Diseased Plants,. Ideally wet garbage should not be put into the bin.

THE FIRST STEP: Segregate the garbage before handing it to the sweepers who come to your homes. DRY & WET waste need to be separated at the household level. Two storage bin of different color should be provided at homes for the purpose.

 

 

THE SECOND STEP: The sweeper store the kitchen waste like food leftovers, vegetables, meat refuse, egg shells at the compost making site. They take the dry waste away.

Third Step: COMPOST MAKING: Adding falling leaves from the road side completes the preparation for making compost. The wet garbage is moved and a new layer of waste is spread over it daily.. Water should be sprinkled daily on it and a fresh stock of compost is ready every three weeks.

Fourth Step: Marketing and selling of compost. This will not creat a problem if it is sold as a brand name or as organic manure. All the tea gardens will be happy to take it. Also all health conscious people will stop using chemical fertilizers in their kitchen garden.

 

THE 22 MT COMPOSTING PROJECT

ANNEXURE-I Key Personnel details

S No

Category of personnel

Name

Qualification

Present designation

Experience in relevant field

Remarks

1

Team Leader (Solid waste Engineer with 10 Years experience)

2

Municipal Engineering Specialist

3

Medical and Health Specialist

4

Finance Specialist

5

Management specialist


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANNEXURE-II NORMS FOR GENERATION OF GARBAGE


Category of garbage

Quantity generated

Domestic household

(1) Population range upto 1 lakh

(2) Population range 1 to 5 lakh

(3) Population range 5 to 10 lakh

(4) Population range 10 to 20 lakh


0.21 Kg per person per day

0.21 Kg per person per day

0.25 Kg per person per day

0.27 Kg per person per day

Street sweepings and drain silt

0.10 Kg per person per day

Slaughter House:

(1) Small slaughter house

(2) Medium slaughter house

(3) Large slaughter house


0.5 to 1.0 ton per day

2 to 6 ton per day

6 to 7 ton per day

Domestic waste from Hospitals / Clinics etc.

1.1 Kg per bed per day

 

ANNEXURE-III

What constitutes Biodegradable Waste – Components

    1. Kitchen / canteen waste – unused vegetable cuttings, fruit peel-off, tea / coffee powder, coconut fiber, egg shells, non-vegetable waste, stale / leftover / rotten food etc.
    2. Flowers / garlands
    3. Hair / cut nails
    4. Excreta of the pet animals, cow dung etc.
    5. Horticulture waste like dried leaves, grass, cut trees, uprooted wheat.

Segregation at Source:

  • Encouraging residents / producers to segregate
  • Separation of Bio-degradable and non-biodegradable at source.
  • Involve Rag pickers in segregation at source.
  • Involve Self-help Groups in segregation, if required.
  • Introduction of TWO BIN system.

WINDROW COMPOSTING

:

In areas/regions were higher ambient temperatures are available,composting in open windrows is to be preferred. In this method, refuse is delivered on a paved/unpaved open space but levelled and well drained land in

about 20 windrows with each windrow 3m long x 2m wide x 1.5m high, with a total volume not exceeding 9.0 cu.m.Each windrow would be turned on 6th& 11thdays outside to the centre to destroy insects larvae and to provide aeration. On 16thday, windrow would be broken down and passed through manually operated rotary screens of about 25mm square mesh to remove the oversize contrary material. The screened compost is stored for about 30 days in heaps about 2m wide x 1.5m high and up to 20m long to ensure stabilization before sale. 

However, the composting mass should have a certain minimum moisture content in it for the organisms to survive. The optimum moisture content is known to be between 50 to 60 % . Higher moisture content may be required while composting straw and strong fibrous material which soften the fibre and fills the large pore spaces.

The C/N ratio considers the available carbon as well as the available nitrogenwhile the available carbon and nitrogen in the MSW may vary from sample to sample. Whenever the C/N ratio is less than the optimum, carbon source such as straw, sawdust, paper are added while if the ratio is too high, the sewage sludge, slaughter house waste, blood etc. are added as a source of nitrogen.

During the decomposition, the oxygen gets depleted and has to be continuously replenished. This can be achieved either by turning of windrows . During the turning, it is necessary to bring inner mass to the outer surface and to transfer the outer waste to the inner portion. In Indian conditions the decomposition is commonly carried out in open windrows. Studies at NEERI have shown that the optimum turning interval which will reduce the cost and simultaneously maintain aerobic conditions is 5 days.

The windrows should be located over impervious surface so that the surface water from the windrows which can go to Effluent Treatment Plant.

THE FINAL COMPOST CHARACTERISTICS

:

The compost prepared from MSW should be black brown or at least black in colour. It should be crumbly in nature with an earthy odour. The pH should be neutral though slightly acidic or alkaline pH within the range of 6.5 to 7.5 can be tolerated.The compost should neither be completely dry nor it be lumpy and water should not come out of the mass when squeezed.

The Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) contents should be more than one percent each. The Nitrogen should be in the form of Nitrates for proper utilisation by the plants. The C/N ratio should be between 15 to 20.In order to ensure safe application of compost,

As the compost plantoperates at a constant rate, a balancing storage has to be provided to absorb the fluctuations in the waste input to the plant. This is provided in a storage hopper of 8 to 24 hours storage capacity, the exact value depending upon the schedule of incoming trucks, the number of shifts and the number of days the plant and solid waste collection system works.

. These windrows are turned every 5 days to ensure aerobic decomposition. Various types of equipment such as front end loaders/windrows reshifters are used for turning of windrows.At the end of the 3 to 4 weeks period, the material is known as green or fresh compost wherein the cellulose has not been fully stabilised. It is hence stored in large sized windrows for 1-2 months either at the plant or the farms. At the end of the storage period, it is known as ripe compost.

 

POINTS TO BE NOTED

:

:-• Large storage hoppers are not needed.

• Covering of windrow area is not required as the plants are normally shut down during monsoon for annual repairs.

• Artificial aeration under Indian conditions is not required

• It is preferable to first stabilise the raw material and then subject it to picking and size reduction. This will require same windrow area, and improve efficiency of picking and size reduction

• Composting should not be considered as a commercial venture but should be treated as a processing method to reduce the MSW content to be dumped at landfill sites..

• On such days when the waste cannot be accepted at the compost plant or if shutdown occurs for extended period due to rains/cold climate/major breakdown or annual maintenance, the waste should be diverted to a properly designed and operated MSW landfill.

•. The height of stockpiled waste should not exceed 3 metres and the storage area must have provision for odour control, litter control, fire control and birds control.

The areas where compost is to be supplied should be near the site and should be easily accessible. A site for disposal of non compostables should be available near the compost plant site.Trees planted along the periphery of the site will serve partly as a barrier against the noise and odour from the plant and also help in litter control byreducing the wind speed . The trees will also protect the plant from dust and pollutants due to the highway.

GO FOR A PILOT PLANT STUDY FIRST

:

The design and construction of a full scale compost plant needs at least 1.5 to 2 years. Before the plant becomes operational, pilot scale studies be carried out using a small quantity of the raw waste that will be used in the final plant. The raw waste as well as finished compost should also be analysed for heavy metal content. The output of the plant should be widely advertised to the consumers. The pilot studies will help determine the proportion of non-compostables that need disposal, the compost output per tonne of input and its nutrient contents.

 

NORTH EAST INDIA

:

In the North East Indian states, to protect the windrows from heavy rainfall, the windrow area will have to be covered.

EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT

:

• All uncovered windrow areas should be provided with an impermeable base.Such a base may be made of concrete or of compacted clay, 50 centimetres thick, having permeability less than 10 centimetres/second. The base must be provided with 1 to 2 percent slope and must be encircled by lined drains for collection of leachate/surface water runoff. All lined drains should beconnected to a lined settling pond, where tests for quality of waste-water are to be performed on a weekly basis. A treatment unit will be provided to ensure that the waste-water is discharged to open drains only after it meets the regulatory standards.




--
http://www.saleemindia.blogspot.com

Monday, February 23, 2009

VERMIS INDIA PVT LTD http://vermisindia.blogspot.com/

Kindly visit our web site to know about our new company VERMIS INDIA.http://vermisindia.blogspot.com
 
headed By Syeda Mosaddika Farhana,
assisted by Dr.Rajkhowa, and Syed Rakib Hussain.
backed by ENVO PROJECTS .
 
 
we are selling earth worm.
we are developing Vermi compost plants
we are doing municipal solid waste management
we are fabricating and supplying equipments like Trommel ,vibrating screen etc.
 
call us for any further details.
 
Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah,
Cell :+919899300371
Tel. : +9101126985165

Saturday, February 21, 2009

allergic rhinitis cold

Homeopathy

Although few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic therapies, professional homeopaths may consider the following remedies for the treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms based on their knowledge and experience. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person's constitutional type -- your physical, emotional, and psychological makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate treatment for each individual.

  • Nux vomica -- for stuffiness with nasal discharge, dry, ticklish, and scraping nasal sensations with watery nasal discharge and a lot of sneezing; an appropriate person for this remedy is irritable and impatient.
  • Arsenicum album -- for stuffiness with copious, burning nasal discharge and violent sneezing; an appropriate candidate for Arsenicum feels restless, anxious, and exhausted.
  • Allium cepa -- for frequent sneezing, a lot of irritating nasal discharge and tearing eyes; this person tends to feel thirsty.
  • Euphrasia -- for bland nasal discharge, with stinging, irritating tears; a suitable person for this remedy has worse nasal symptoms when lying down.

Medications

Depending on the type of allergic rhinitis you have, your doctor may recommend medication. Perennial allergic rhinitis may require daily medication, and if you have seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) you may start medications a few weeks before the pollen season.

Nasal corticosteroids

These prescription sprays reduce inflammation of the nose and help relieve sneezing, itching, and runny nose. They are most effective at reducing symptoms, although you may not see improvement for a few days to a week after you start using them.

  • Beclomethasone (Beconase)
  • Fluticasone (Flonase)
  • Mometasone (Nasonex)
  • Triacinolone (Nasacort)

Antihistamines

Antihistamines are available in both oral and nasal spray forms, and as prescription drugs and over-the-counter remedies. Over-the-counter antihistamines are short-acting and can relieve mild-to-moderate symptoms. All work by blocking the release of histamine in your body.

  • Over-the-counter antihistamines -- Include diphenhydramine (Benadryl), chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), clemastine (Tavist). These older antihistamines can cause sleepiness. Loratadine (Claritin) does not cause drowsiness.
  • Prescription antihistamines -- These medications are longer-acting than over-the-counter antihistamines and are usually taken once a day. They include fexofenadine (Allegra) and cetrizine (Zyrtec).

Decongestants

Many over-the-counter and prescription decongestants are available in tablet or nasal spray form. They are often used with antihistamines.

  • Oral and nasal decongestants -- Include Sudafed, Actifed, Afrin, Neo-Synephrin. Some decongestants may contain pseudoephedrine, which can raise blood pressure. People with high blood pressure or enlarged prostate should not take drugs containing pseudoephedrine. Nasal decongestants can cause "rebound congestion," where the nasal passages swell. Avoid using nasal decongestants for more than 3 days in a row, unless specifically instructed by your doctor, and do not use them if you have emphysema or chronic bronchitis.
 

Common Cold Treatment and Allergy Prevention homeopathy

Common Cold Treatment and Allergy Prevention

At the moment in the evenings or early mornings, when we start to have runny and blocked nose together with sneezing, we quickly think that our environment may contain dust mites or the air conditions cause us allergic. Some of us may not know whether we are actually suffering from allergy or common cold. So when a person starts sneezing, he or she immediately thought it is an allergy and takes antihistamine to stop the allergy. The symptoms of the allergy and common cold are quite similar, i.e. runny nose, blocked nose and sneezing. But the actual difference between allergy and common cold is the cause to this illness. The latter is due to a weakened immune system followed by an influenza viral attack, whereas allergy is due to allergen such as dust mites, pollen, cat dander, mold and etc. A blocked nose can adversely affect your sleep in the night because it disturbs your breathing activity or it may cause you unable to fall asleep. Subsequently, uptake of oxygen by your body is reduced and this will cause fatigue and unable to concentrate in the day time. Uptake of oxygen is important because it is the main natural ingredient that is used by our body to regenerate energy. The consequences of this are your day time productivity will reduce and you may in high risk of accident such as car accident or workplace accident. After wake up in the morning with allergy, you will not enjoy the sniffles and the heavy head feeling throughout the whole morning. 

Allergy is a continuing ailment if you are not looking for treatment. This continuing ailment will cause a heavy impact to your quality of life. You may completely at sea when it comes to the remedy for this illness. If your sleep-depriving symptoms originate from common cold, you can try the following medication that had been found by German doctors, which is able to relief cold. This formulation has been used for more than 50 years and it is an herbal combination of Thujae Occidentalis, Baptista and Echinaceae, which is able to help sufferer to overcome the common cold. Compared to other forms of formulations, this prescription only needs to be taken by user when it is necessary; whereas, others usually need the user to use it frequently during illness and even after recovery. Both Thujae and Baptisiae work as a very powerful immune system booster. Furthermore, by adding together with Echinaceae, the efficacy of this mixture will be enhanced. This is because Echinaceae has antiviral properties. This combination not only helps in activating the body's immune system, it is also increasing the body resistance to viral or bacterial infection. It is unnecessary to take this combination of herbal extracts for long term basic like a supplement to prevent infection. What you need to do is just take this combination for five days after attacked by the virus or take it for a few days when you feel that you have been infected until the symptoms disappear. The main symptoms of a common cold are runny nose, sore throat, and sneezing. You may also have a mild fever. This herbal combination is safe for both adults and children with very little side effects, which you may not feel it. However, prevention better than cure, you should try to avoid contact with anyone who has or suspected has a cold. After you have contacted with someone who has cold, the cold virus usually stays in your body for a few days before starts to attack your immune system.  This also depends to your immune system conditions during this few days.  If your immune system is strong and healthy, you won't be infected and cold symptoms will not appear. Therefore, we should maintain our body immune system health and don't try to weaken it. Immune system is usually weak for a person, who is under stress. In order to have a strong and healthy immune system, we should have enough rest. Besides, having enough sleep everyday also can help to maintain a strong and healthy body's immunity.  

To improve your quality of life, the following steps will help you to ease your illness symptoms if you are suffering from allergy that is caused by dust mites and other types of allergen.  Zippered dust-proof covers, which are made from Dacron or other synthetic fiber, should be used to cover your pillows and mattresses. This is because these types of pillow and mattresses covers are allergen protectors. Often washing all bedding habit has to be inculcated. The right way to wash your bedding stuffs such as pillow cases, mattress cover, sheets and blankets is using hot water at about 60oC. Wall hangings, which are made of fabric, should be taken down because dust mites, mold and mildew can be easily gathered on them. For those who have children at home, you have to make sure that your child's toys are able to be washed either manually or using washing machine.  Your child is always playing with these toys and dust may be deposited on them; therefore, it is advisable to launder them regularly. Instead of using drapes or curtains, which are easily deposited by dust, plastic blinds should be used because they are easily to be cleaned. Carpet is the place, where most of the dusts accumulate and it is also quite difficult and tedious to clean it regularly, especially launder it.  The proper way to avoid accumulation of dust, which containing allergen, throw rugs should be used. If you feel it is quite wasteful, another alternative way that can be sought is changing your flooring to tile or wooden floors. Casing of upholstered furniture and the pad covers should be washed often because all these things harbour allergens. HEPA vacuum can be used to purified the air in your house once or twice a week and make sure that the vacuum bags are thrown away regularly. If the vacuum bags are not disposed properly, dust mites may escape from the bags into the house. 

By Alexander Chong

Author of "How to cure your incurable nasal allergy without using any synthetic drugs, herbs and expensive devices".

http://www.cure-nasal-allergy.com

Other links:

Submit Articles - Free Website Content
Need free content? Check out the library of copyright free articles at ArticleGeek.com

Infocrystals

Article Creek Directory - Submit articles at ArticleCreek.com to Improve Your Web Site Promotion Efforts


Email: curenasalallergy@lycos.com

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Methane Fuel Gas from Livestock Wastes

Methane Fuel Gas from Livestock Wastes
A Summary

 

Thursday, February 12, 2009

sulphate removal technologies from drinking water

Sulfate which is a combination of sulfur and oxygen (SO4) exists as a dissolved salt in the water. As such it is colorless and odorless. It is not to be confused with the gas in the water that causes a rotten egg odor. This is a combination of Hydrogen and sulfur (H2S). Removal technology is totally different for the two forms of sulfur.

Sulfates: The US Primary Drinking Water Regulations list safe levels of sulfates at 500 ppm (mg/l) in drinking water and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations for sulfates at 250 ppm (mg/l). At this level or above, sulfates can cause diarrhea and resulting de-hydration. This condition is most severe in infants, the elderly, and people with other illnesses. Also, high sulfates cause fluid and resulting weight loss in all animals

Sulfate can be precipitated by addition of lime, calcium chloride

or removed by anion exchange resin. those waters where high sulfates (>250 ppm) are to be removed by Purolite® ion exchange. High levels of sulfates have been known to cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Purolite Strong Base Anion (SBA) exchange resins, operated in the chloride form, can remove these sulfate ions. In addition, high sulfate levels are also a concern for Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane fouling. At high concentrations, they precipitate on the membranes and reduce the efficiency. These Purolite® resins are regenerated with brine. As Purolite anion resins, they use the chloride portion of the NaCl. During the service run the sulfate ions displace the chloride ions due to the higher selectivity of the Purolite Strong Base resins towards sulphate ions.

 
Rather than waste either the sodium or the potassium we place the special sulfate resin on top of regular softening resin and along with removing the sulfates we also soften the water with the same amount of salt being used. We get a free bonus of softening.

Maximum Iron and Manganese Levels in water :

Combined Manganese and Iron levels must be below *0.8ppm
*A resin cleaner is to be used at these levels to help prevent premature resin failure due to iron buildup.

source : public health engineering...by nemero

 

Tuesday, February 10, 2009

design : v notch for flow measurement

To design a V notch for measurement of flow, We first will have to build a chamber to install the V notch.
 
The size of the chamber  will depend on the quantity of total discharge to be estimated.
 
After knowing the cross sectinal size of the chamber, the size and thickness of the V notch plate can be determined.
 
 

Installation Guidelines for V notch

 

 

 

 

  • Use a 2mm Thick Mild Steel plate to make the V notch. Make a 90o V
  • Water surface downstream of the weir should be at least 6 cm below the bottom of the V to allow a free flowing waterfall.
  • The bottom of the "V" only needs to be 10 cm (=P) above the bottom of the upstream channel,
  • the approach channel (=B) only needs to be 2 ft. wide,
  • Head (h) should be measured at a distance of at least 4h upstream of the weir.

 

Q = 4.28 C tan(θ/2)( h+k)5/2

 

where
Q = flow rate (cfs)
C= Discharge Coefficient, C=0.578 for 90o V notch
θ = v-notch angle ( 90o
h = head on the weir (ft)
k = Head Correction factor(Ft)
  • k (ft.) = 0.0144902648 - 0.00033955535 Ø + 3.29819003x10-6 Ø2 - 1.06215442x10-8 Ø3
    where Ø is the V notch angle in degrees ( 90o

 

 

Source: ENVO PROJECTS. NEW DELHI-25 9899300371, 9810004529

 

Saturday, February 07, 2009

MSW anaerobic digestion

DEWATS-decentralised waste water treatment system---Baffle reactor anaerobic

 
 

DEWATS-decentralised waste water treatment system---Baffle reactor anaerobic, hospital waste water treatment

hospital waste water treatment baffle reactor anaerobic


hospital waste water treatment baffle reactor anaerobic


CATEGORIES OF BIO MEDICAL WASTE (BMW)
https://www.dpcc.delhigovt.nic.in/bio-medical-waste.html

(Please refer Schedule I , Click here to see the Schedule I)
Category No. 1      Human Anatomical Waste
Category No. 2      Animal Waste
Category No. 3      Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste
Category No. 4      Waste sharps
Category No. 5      Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs
Category No. 6      Soiled Waste
Category No. 7      Solid Waste
Category No. 8      Liquid Waste
Category No. 9       Incineration Ash
Category No. 10    Chemical Waste
reatment Of Bio Medical Waste 

Category No.1    Incineration /deep burial

Category No.2    Incineration /deep burial

Category No.3    Autoclaving/microwaving/incineration

Category No.4    Disinfection(chemical treatment)/autoclaving/microwaving and 
                            mutilation/shredding.

Category No.5    Incineration/destruction/ and drugs disposal in secured landfills

Category No. 6    Incineration/autoclaving/microwaving

Category No.7    Disinfection by chemical treatment/autoclaving/ microwaving and 
                           mutilation/ shredding

Category No.8    Disinfection by chemical treatment & discharge into drains

Category No.9    Disposal in municipal land fill

Category No.10    Chemical treatment and discharge into drains for liquids and secured 
                              landfill for solids. 
Standards for Liquid Waste



PARAMETERS
PERMISSIBLE LIMITS
pH
6.5-9.0
Suspended Solids
100 mg/L
Oil & Grease
10 mg/L
BOD
30 mg/L
COD
250 mg/L
Bio-assay Test
90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent

These limits are applicable to those hospitals which are either connected with sewers without terminal Sewage Treatment Plant or not connected to public sewers. 

For discharge into public sewers with terminal facilities , the General Standards as notified under the Environment (Protection ) Act, 1986, shall be applicable . 
Click here to see the General Standards(Schedule VI) 

Main parameters are given below:




PARAMETERS
PERMISSIBLE LIMITS
pH
5.5-9.0
Suspended Solids
600 mg/L
Oil & Grease
10 mg/L
BOD
350mg/L
Bio-assay Test
90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent

DPCC has taken decision that Hospital having 50 beds or more shall install Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for the treatment of waste water generated and for recycling of treated effluent for use in horticulture, air conditioning/ cooling plants and flushing of toilet etc. 
In hospitals that have ETP facility, the treatment is carried out using special scientific process and generally involves three stages, primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of treatment. [14]

 Average water consumption 750 liter / bed / day. Please calculate daily water consumption from borewell to over head tank using water meter. 80% of total water in nover head tanks is wasted as waste water. This should be the capacity of the STP to be installed at the hospital. (See table below)
Capacity of overhead tank from where water is distributed = A Liter
Number of times Over Head Tanks Filled up in a day = B Nos
Total water requirement for use at different points = A x B Liter/day
Quantity of Effluent , liter per day = 80 % of ( A x B )
Sourcess of waste water
1. Bed in Hospital= Nos @ 500 liter per bed = Liter
2. Employee in Hospital = nos @ 40 liter per employee= Liter
3. Hostels- Persons = nos @ 150 liters per person. = Liter
4. Kitchen Meals= nos@ 10 liter per meal = Liter
So, Total Quantity of discharge: --------- liter per day
Health Stream Literature Summary - Issue 46 - June 2007
The treatment of hospital waste water: an appraisal
Pauwels, B. and Verstraete, W. (2006) Journal of Water & Health, (4) 405-416.


Primary treatment

Consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a basin where the settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid subjected to secondary treatment. Primary treatment usually removes from 30 to 40% of the BOD. After this treatment the BOD and COD levels usually comes down to 25% of its initial levels.

Secondary treatment

Removes the dissolved and suspended biological matter and is typically performed by indigenous, water borne microorganisms in a managed habitat. This treatment uses microbial degradation, aerobic or anaerobic, to reduce the concentration of the organic compounds. The combined use of primary and secondary treatment reduces approximately 80 to 90% of the BOD. In this stage, there is settling down of the suspended solid contents of the biological waste as thick slurry called sludge, while the treated fluid undergoes tertiary treatment. Through this process, 95% of the pollutants from the waste water are removed.

Tertiary treatment

Uses chemicals to remove inorganic compounds and pathogens. This is the final stage of treatment where the effluent after secondary treatment first is mixed with sodium hypochlorite and then the effluent is passed through dual media filter (DMF) and activated carbon filter (ACF) where sand, anthracite, and activated carbon are used as filtration media. Finally, the treated water is let into a small well to recharge the water table. This treated waste water now can be used for gardening, toilets, and laundry purposes. [15]
Chemical treatment usually involves the use of 1% sodium hypochlorite solution with a minimum contact period of 30 min or other standard disinfectants like, 10-14 gm of bleaching powder in 1 l water, 70% ethanol, 4% formaldehyde, 70% isopropyl alcohol, 2 5% povidone iodine, or 6% hydrogen peroxide

WASTE WATER FLOW RATES IN DIFFERENT UNITS:
Waste water consist primarily of used water, the water that reaches the sewer . For different units it is different as shown in the chart .
Source
Unit
Range l/u/d
Typical l/u/d
Apartment
Person
200-340
260
Hotel resident
Resident
150-220
190
Hotel Employee
Employee
30-50
40
Individual Home
Person
190-350
280
Airport
Passenger
8-15
10
Automobile service station
Vehicle served
150-200
200
Restaurant
Meal
8-15
10
Office
Employee
30-65
55
Laundry
Machine
1800-2600
2200
Laundry
Wash
180-200
190
Hospital medical
Bed
Employee
500-950
20-60
650
40
School
Student
20-65
40
School boarding
Student
200-400
280
For Industries
80% of water used used in production will be released as waste water
Meat processing
Mg
15-20 cu mtr/ Mg
Milk Products
Mg
10-20 cu mtr/Mg
Bread
Mg
2-4 cu mt/Mg
Beer
Mg
10-16 cu mtr/Mg
Whisky
Mg
60-80 cu mtr/Mg
Paper Pulp
Mg
250-800 cu mt/ Mg
Paper
Mg
120-160 cu mtr/Mg
Textile Bleaching (Cotton)
Mg
200-300 cu mtr/Mg
Textile Dyeing (Cotton)
Mg
30-60 cu mtr/Mg
REF : WASTE WATER ENGINEERING : TREATMENT , DISPOSAL AND REUSE--- METCALF & EDDY .